Server ArchitectureThis chapter is a “deep dive” into Bokeh server’s internals. It assumes you’realready familiar with the information on Bokeh server in.You might want to read this if you are:.trying to work on the Bokeh codebase.writing your own custom server process to use rather than bokeh serveA custom server process can add additional routes (web pages orREST endpoints) using Tornado’s web framework.If an application developer uses bokeh serve they typically should not needto import from bokeh.server at all.
An application developer would only usethe Server class if it is doing something specialized, such as a customor embedded server process. Applications, Sessions, and ConnectionsEach server contains one or more applications; you can think of an applicationas a session template, or a factory for sessions.
Sessions have a 1-1relationship with instances of bokeh.document.Document: each session has adocument instance. When a browser connects to the server, it gets a newsession; the application fills in the session’s document with whatever plots,widgets, or other content it desires. The application can also set upcallbacks, to run periodically or to run when the document changes.Applications are represented by the Application class. This class iscontains list of Handler instances and optional metadata. Handlerscan be created in lots of ways; from JSON files, from Python functions, fromPython files, and perhaps many more ways in the future. The optional metadatais available as a JSON blob via the /metadata endpoint.
For example,creating a Application instance with. Tornado IOLoop and Async CodeTo work on the server, you’ll need an understanding of Tornado’sIOLoop and the tornado.gen module.The Tornado documentation will be the best resource, but here aresome quick things to know:.the Bokeh server is single-threaded, so it’s important not towrite “blocking” code, meaning code that uses up the singlethread while it waits for IO or performs a long computation.
Ifyou do this, you’ll rapidly increase the latency seen by usersof your application. For example, if you block for 100ms everytime someone moves a slider, and ten users are doing this atonce, users could easily see 10.100ms=1s of lag with onlyten users.in Tornado, nonblocking code is modeled with functions ormethods that return an instance of the Future class. Youmay have seen the @gen.coroutine decorator, whichtransforms the decorated method into a method which returns aFuture.when no code is running, Tornado waits in its IOLoop(sometimes called a “main loop” or “event loop”), which meansit’s waiting for something to happen.
When something happens,IOLoop executes any callbacks that were interested in thatevent. Applications and the IOLoopWe don’t want applications to touch the Tornado IOLoopdirectly to add callbacks, because when a session expires or anapplication is reloaded, we need the ability to remove allcallbacks belonging to a session or application.To enable this, applications should only add callbacks using theAPIs on Document and ServerContext. Methods on thoseclasses allow applications to addperiodiccallback,addtimeoutcallback, and addnexttickcallback. Weintercept these callback additions and are able to remove themwhen we unload an application or destroy a session.
Frames are strings or byte arrays(or special internal frame types, such as pings). A websocket looks like atwo sequences of frames, one sequence in each direction (“full duplex”).On top of websocket frames, we implement our own Message concept. A BokehMessage spans multiple websocket frames. It always contains a header frame,metadata frame, and content frame.
These three frames each contain a JSONstring. The code permits these three frames to be followed by optional binary dataframes.
In principle this could allow for example, for sending numpy arraysdirectly from their memory buffers to the websocket with no additional copies.However, the binary data frames are not yet used in Bokeh.The header frame indicates the message type and gives messages an ID. MessageIDs are used to match replies with requests (the reply contains a field saying“I am the reply to the request with ID xyz”).The metadata frame has nothing in it for now, but could be used for debuggingdata or another purpose in the future.The content frame has the “body” of the message.There aren’t many messages right now. Some Current Protocol Caveats.In the current protocol, conflicts where both sides change thesame thing at the same time are not handled (the two sides canend up out-of-sync if this happens, because the twoPATCH-DOC are in flight at the same time). It’s easy todevise a scheme to detect this situation, but it’s less clearwhat to do when it’s detected, so right now we don’t detect itand do nothing. In most cases, applications should avoid thissituation because even if we could make sense of it and handleit somehow, it would probably be inefficient for the two sidesof the app to “fight” over the same value.
Geo Signal-on-server Online
Justas models may have onchange callbacks, so can aDocument. When a Document is notified of a change to one ofits models it will generate the appropriate event (usually aModelChangedEvent) and trigger the onchange callbacks,passing them this new event. Sessions are one such callback, whichwill turn the event into a patch that can be sent across the websocket connection.
When a message is received by the client or serversession it will extract the patch and apply it directly to theDocument.In order to avoid events bouncing back and forth between client andserver (as each patch would generate new events, which would in turnbe sent back), the session informs the Document that it wasresponsible for generating the patch and any subsequent events thatare generated. In this way, when a Session is notified of a changeto the document it can check whether the event.setter is identicalwith itself and therefore skip processing the event.
SerializationIn general all the concepts above are agnostic as to how precisely themodels and change events are encoded and decoded. Each model and itsproperties are responsible for converting their values to a JSON-likeformat, which can be sent across the Websocket connection. Onedifficulty here is that one model can reference other models, often inhighly interconnected and even circular ways. Therefore during theconversion to a JSON-like format all references by one model to othermodels are replaced with ID references.
Overview of Always On Availability Groups (SQL Server). 14 minutes to read.In this articleAPPLIES TO: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure Synapse Analytics (SQL DW) Parallel Data WarehouseThis topic introduces the Always On availability groups concepts that are central for configuring and managing one or more availability groups in SQL Server 2019 (15.x). For a summary of the benefits offered by availability groups and an overview of Always On availability groups terminology, see.An availability group supports a replicated environment for a discrete set of user databases, known as availability databases. You can create an availability group for high availability (HA) or for read-scale.
An HA availability group is a group of databases that fail over together. A read-scale availability group is a group of databases that are copied to other instances of SQL Server for read-only workload. An availability group supports one set of primary databases and one to eight sets of corresponding secondary databases. Secondary databases are not backups.
Continue to back up your databases and their transaction logs on a regular basis. TipYou can create any type of backup of a primary database.
Alternatively, you can create log backups and copy-only full backups of secondary databases. For more information, see.Each set of availability database is hosted by an availability replica. Two types of availability replicas exist: a single primary replica. Which hosts the primary databases, and one to eight secondary replicas, each of which hosts a set of secondary databases and serves as a potential failover targets for the availability group. An availability group fails over at the level of an availability replica.
An availability replica provides redundancy only at the database level-for the set of databases in one availability group. Failovers are not caused by database issues such as a database becoming suspect due to a loss of a data file or corruption of a transaction log.The primary replica makes the primary databases available for read-write connections from clients. The primary replica sends transaction log records of each primary database to every secondary database. This process - known as data synchronization - occurs at the database level.
Every secondary replica caches the transaction log records ( hardens the log) and then applies them to its corresponding secondary database. Data synchronization occurs between the primary database and each connected secondary database, independently of the other databases. Therefore, a secondary database can be suspended or fail without affecting other secondary databases, and a primary database can be suspended or fail without affecting other primary databases.Optionally, you can configure one or more secondary replicas to support read-only access to secondary databases, and you can configure any secondary replica to permit backups on secondary databases.SQL Server 2017 introduces two different architectures for availability groups.
Always On availability groups provide high availability, disaster recovery, and read-scale balancing. These availability groups require a cluster manager. In Windows, failover clustering provides the cluster manager. In Linux, you can use Pacemaker. The other architecture is a read-scale availability group. A read scale availability group provides replicas for read-only workloads but not high availability.
In a read-scale availability group there is no cluster manager.Deploying Always On availability groups for HA on Windows requires a Windows Server Failover Cluster(WSFC). Each availability replica of a given availability group must reside on a different node of the same WSFC. The only exception is that while being migrated to another WSFC cluster, an availability group can temporarily straddle two clusters. NoteFor information about the relationship of SQL Server Always On components to the WSFC cluster, see.The following illustration shows an availability group that contains one primary replica and four secondary replicas. Up to eight secondary replicas are supported, including one primary replica and two synchronous-commit secondary replicas.Availability DatabasesTo add a database to an availability group, the database must be an online, read-write database that exists on the server instance that hosts the primary replica.
When you add a database, it joins the availability group as a primary database, while remaining available to clients. No corresponding secondary database exists until backups of the new primary database are restored to the server instance that hosts the secondary replica (using RESTORE WITH NORECOVERY). The new secondary database is in the RESTORING state until it is joined to the availability group.
For more information, see.Joining places the secondary database into the ONLINE state and initiates data synchronization with the corresponding primary database. Data synchronization is the process by which changes to a primary database are reproduced on a secondary database.
Data synchronization involves the primary database sending transaction log records to the secondary database. ImportantAn availability database is sometimes called a database replica in Transact-SQL, PowerShell, and SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) names. For example, the term 'database replica' is used in the names of the Always On dynamic management views that return information about availability databases: sys.dmhadrdatabasereplicastates and sys.dmhadrdatabasereplicaclusterstates. However, in SQL Server Books Online, the term 'replica' typically refers to availability replicas. For example, 'primary replica' and 'secondary replica' always refer to availability replicas.
Availability ReplicasEach availability group defines a set of two or more failover partners known as availability replicas. Availability replicas are components of the availability group.
Each availability replica hosts a copy of the availability databases in the availability group. For a given availability group, the availability replicas must be hosted by separate instances of SQL Server residing on different nodes of a WSFC cluster.
Each of these server instances must be enabled for Always On.A given instance can host only one availability replica per availability group. However, each instance can be used for many availability groups. A given instance can be either a stand-alone instance or a SQL Server failover cluster instance (FCI). If you require server-level redundancy, use Failover Cluster Instances.Every availability replica is assigned an initial role-either the primary role or the secondary role, which is inherited by the availability databases of that replica. The role of a given replica determines whether it hosts read-write databases or read-only databases.
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One replica, known as the primary replica, is assigned the primary role and hosts read-write databases, which are known as primary databases. At least one other replica, known as a secondary replica, is assigned the secondary role. A secondary replica hosts read-only databases, known as secondary databases. NoteWhen the role of an availability replica is indeterminate, such as during a failover, its databases are temporarily in a NOT SYNCHRONIZING state.
Their role is set to RESOLVING until the role of the availability replica has resolved. If an availability replica resolves to the primary role, its databases become the primary databases. If an availability replica resolves to the secondary role, its databases become secondary databases.
Availability ModesThe availability mode is a property of each availability replica. The availability mode determines whether the primary replica waits to commit transactions on a database until a given secondary replica has written the transaction log records to disk (hardened the log).
Always On availability groups supports two availability modes- asynchronous-commit mode and synchronous-commit mode.Asynchronous-commit modeAn availability replica that uses this availability mode is known as an asynchronous-commit replica. Under asynchronous-commit mode, the primary replica commits transactions without waiting for acknowledgement that an asynchronous-commit secondary replica has hardened the log.
Asynchronous-commit mode minimizes transaction latency on the secondary databases but allows them to lag behind the primary databases, making some data loss possible.Synchronous-commit modeAn availability replica that uses this availability mode is known as a synchronous-commit replica. Under synchronous-commit mode, before committing transactions, a synchronous-commit primary replica waits for a synchronous-commit secondary replica to acknowledge that it has finished hardening the log. Synchronous-commit mode ensures that once a given secondary database is synchronized with the primary database, committed transactions are fully protected. This protection comes at the cost of increased transaction latency.For more information, see. Types of FailoverWithin the context of a session between the primary replica and a secondary replica, the primary and secondary roles are potentially interchangeable in a process known as failover. During a failover the target secondary replica transitions to the primary role, becoming the new primary replica.
The new primary replica brings its databases online as the primary databases, and client applications can connect to them. When the former primary replica is available, it transitions to the secondary role, becoming a secondary replica. The former primary databases become secondary databases and data synchronization resumes.Three forms of failover exist-automatic, manual, and forced (with possible data loss). The form or forms of failover supported by a given secondary replica depends on its availability mode, and, for synchronous-commit mode, on the failover mode on the primary replica and target secondary replica, as follows.Synchronous-commit mode supports two forms of failover- planned manual failover and automatic failover, if the target secondary replica is currently synchronized with the primary replica.
The support for these forms of failover depends on the setting of the failover mode property on the failover partners. If failover mode is set to 'manual' on either the primary or secondary replica, only manual failover is supported for that secondary replica. If failover mode is set to 'automatic' on both the primary and secondary replicas, both automatic and manual failover are supported on that secondary replica.Planned manual failover (without data loss)A manual failover occurs after a database administrator issues a failover command and causes a synchronized secondary replica to transition to the primary role (with guaranteed data protection) and the primary replica to transition to the secondary role. A manual failover requires that both the primary replica and the target secondary replica are running under synchronous-commit mode, and the secondary replica must already be synchronized.Automatic failover (without data loss)An automatic failover occurs in response to a failure that causes a synchronized secondary replica to transition to the primary role (with guaranteed data protection). When the former primary replica becomes available, it transitions to the secondary role. Automatic failover requires that both the primary replica and the target secondary replica are running under synchronous-commit mode with the failover mode set to 'Automatic'.
In addition, the secondary replica must already be synchronized, have WSFC quorum, and meet the conditions specified by the of the availability group. NoteNote that if you issue a forced failover command on a synchronized secondary replica, the secondary replica behaves the same as for a planned manual failover.Under asynchronous-commit mode, the only form of failover is forced manual failover (with possible data loss), typically called forced failover. Forced failover is considered a form of manual failover because it can only be initiated manually. Forced failover is a disaster recovery option. It is the only form of failover that is possible when the target secondary replica is not synchronized with the primary replica.For more information, see. Client ConnectionsYou can provide client connectivity to the primary replica of a given availability group by creating an availability group listener. An availability group listener provides a set of resources that is attached to a given availability group to direct client connections to the appropriate availability replica.An availability group listener is associated with a unique DNS name that serves as a virtual network name (VNN), one or more virtual IP addresses (VIPs), and a TCP port number.
For more information, see. TipIf an availability group possesses only two availability replicas and is not configured to allow read-access to the secondary replica, clients can connect to the primary replica by using a. This approach can be useful temporarily after you migrate a database from database mirroring to Always On availability groups. Before you add additional secondary replicas, you will need to create an availability group listener the availability group and update your applications to use the network name of the listener. Active Secondary ReplicasAlways On availability groups supports active secondary replicas. Active secondary capabilities include support for:.Performing backup operations on secondary replicasThe secondary replicas support performing log backups and backups of a full database, file, or filegroup. You can configure the availability group to specify a preference for where backups should be performed.
It is important to understand that the preference is not enforced by SQL Server, so it has no impact on ad-hoc backups. The interpretation of this preference depends on the logic, if any, that you script into your back jobs for each of the databases in a given availability group.
For an individual availability replica, you can specify your priority for performing backups on this replica relative to the other replicas in the same availability group. For more information, see.Read-only access to one or more secondary replicas (readable secondary replicas)Any secondary availability replica can be configured to allow only read-only access to its local databases, though some operations are not fully supported. This will prevent read-write connection attempts to the secondary replica. It is also possible to prevent read-only workloads on the primary replica by only allowing read-write access. This will prevent read-only connections from being made to the primary replica. For more information, see.If an availability group currently possesses an availability group listener and one or more readable secondary replicas, SQL Server can route read-intent connection requests to one of them ( read-only routing). For more information, see.Session-Timeout PeriodThe session-timeout period is an availability-replica property that determines how long connection with another availability replica can remain inactive before the connection is closed.
The primary and secondary replicas ping each other to signal that they are still active. Receiving a ping from the other replica during the timeout period indicates that the connection is still open and that the server instances are communicating. On receiving a ping, an availability replica resets its session-timeout counter on that connection.The session-timeout period prevents either replica from waiting indefinitely to receive a ping from the other replica. If no ping is received from the other replica within the session-timeout period, the replica times out. Its connection is closed, and the timed-out replica enters the DISCONNECTED state.
Even if a disconnected replica is configured for synchronous-commit mode, transactions will not wait for that replica to reconnect and resynchronize.The default session-timeout period for each availability replica is 10 seconds. This value is user-configurable, with a minimum of 5 seconds. Generally, we recommend that you keep the time-out period at 10 seconds or greater. Setting the value to less than 10 seconds creates the possibility of a heavily loaded system declaring a false failure. NoteIn the resolving role, the session-timeout period does not apply because pinging does not occur.
Automatic Page RepairEach availability replica tries to automatically recover from corrupted pages on a local database by resolving certain types of errors that prevent reading a data page. If a secondary replica cannot read a page, the replica requests a fresh copy of the page from the primary replica. If the primary replica cannot read a page, the replica broadcasts a request for a fresh copy to all the secondary replicas and gets the page from the first to respond. If this request succeeds, the unreadable page is replaced by the copy, which usually resolves the error.For more information, see. Related Tasks.Related Content.Blogs:.Videos:.Whitepapers:See AlsoRecommended Content.